“Bull Trout do not tolerate anything but cold, clean water for spawning and rearing – this is just a fact of the natural physiological tolerance of eggs, embryos, alevins and fingerlings. And since the embryos spend many months in stream gravels fall – spring, they are also especially vulnerable to sillation (smothering) and altered stream hydro graphs. Significantly warmer water, pollution firm silt and changes in stream flow dynamics are all common changes in watersheds that have been altered by either logging and agriculture. Bull trout are so sensitive to these changes (certainly the most sensitive salmonid) even comparatively low levels land use changes may have measurable effects.” – Dr. James Bergdahl, Biodiversity Institute, Author of Bull Trout Streams of the Upper Columbia River Basin of Southeast British Columbia, James C. Bergdahl, Phd 1996.
Dr. Don McPhail, pre-eminent fish biologist presenting…
“The History of the fishes of the Columbia and Slocan Rivers”Rivers Day Event 2011, Slocan Valley, BC